These are standard specifications - not necessarily specifications for the vehicle (s) in the photo (s). Fits 1991 Mazda Miata MX5 . $361.87. B2200 Cylinder Head Torque Specifications. $47.43. Top. There's no point in building a strong bottom end and not using the best fasteners! The flywheel bolts call for 52 lb-ft, the pressure plate calls for 13 lb-ft. Below are a list of links to related FE3 & FE-DOHC products and services. So that's how the car is set up. There are specific flat hexagonal spots on the camshaft specifically for this. Browse by Make; Car Finder; 0-60 Calculator; Log In; My Account; My Favorites; . Make Mazda Model MX-5 Miata Model Year 1991 Build Date 11/90 Purschase Date 8/11/2004 Purchase Mileage 90,000 Current Mileage on Chassis 185,000 . Follow the tightening and loosening pattern shown below. Great prices on aftermarket 1991 Mazda Miata auto parts and accessories.

Torque (SAE net) 100 lb ft @ 5,500 rpm: Add More Power: Fuel System: Multi-port electronic fuel injection: Shop Miata Fuel Parts: 1991 dashboard Weight. The Mazda MX-5 (NA) (sold in Japan as the Eunos Roadster (, Ynosu Rdosut) and in North America as the Mazda MX-5 Miata) is the first generation of the Mazda MX-5 manufactured from 1989 to 1997. OE quality product for safe, reliable, and efficient performance Provides quiet . We also sell many more MX5 handbooks or owner's manuals for troubleshooting, overhaul, maintenance, diagnose and fault-finding, with very detailed and illustrated step-by-step instructions. drivetrain. # mpn458197924. Mazda Miata Limited Editions . See DISABLING & CAUTION: A double-lock mechanism is used on clockspring connectors. Quantity: Add to Cart. The Miata Special Editionthe perfect way to revive old memories. At PRO Import Tuners, we invest a great deal of time in finding the optimal turbo kit solution for each Mazda Miata MX5. Maximum Seating: 2 seats: Fuel Tank Volume: 11 gal: Front Legroom: 42.7 in: Back Legroom--Wheelbase: 89.2 in: Length: 155.4 in: Width: Exedy Clutch Kit. 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata STEERING GEAR - POWER RACK & PINION 1991 STEERING Mazda - Power Rack & Pinion Microsoft . 1 answer. Miata Torque Specifications. Re: Flywheel and presser plate torque specs for a 1991. Clutch Cover Assembly/Flywheel/Clutch Disc Assembly/Cover Bolt SE/Flywheel Bolt. The torque specs are on the part of the manual with the locations and sizes of the bolts for the transmission bell housing. Save Share. The power is transmitted to the road by the rear wheel drive (RWD) with a 5 speed Manual gearbox. Posts: 77.

Advertisement. 1 helpful. 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata (man. Listed below are the general torque recommendations for bulk 5-packs and engine/accessory fasteners. For that price, it ran and drove fine, but looked (and smelled) pretty bad. Start the engine and reattach some additional engine connectors, accessories or linkages in 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata. Inspired by the post-war era British sports cars, the MX-5 rejuvenated interest in roadsters after the demise of cars such as the MG B and Triumph Spitfire. The spinning motion of this crankshaft powers the supercharger, which increases the horsepower of the engine. Mercedes-Benz 53 Note - power and torque specs are from the 1988-1992 North American Corollas Master and slave cylinder assembly 6 L (1,597 cc) B6ZE (RS) - (78x83 6 L (1,597 cc) B6ZE (RS) - (78x83. mazda: application: ft-lbs (n-m) abs speed sensor bolt: 12-17 (16-23) differential-to-drive axle flange nuts (rear) 40-47 (54-64) drive axle lock nut: miata: 159-217 (216-294) protege & 323 1990-86: 116-174 (157-235) 1994-91: 174-235 (235-319) all others: 174-231 (236-314) drive flange hub bolts . Cylinders 4 . (ft-lbs/N-m) Suspension: Swaybar bushing bolts, front: . Make Model Submodel Year Range Torque; ALFA ROMEO: 164: 4 DOOR / QUAD. engine availabiliy type valve gear displacement bore and stroke compression ratio horsepower, saenet torque, sae net lb.-ft. fuel system ignition system thansmission specifications and features manual transmission inline 4-cylinder dohc 16-valve 1597cc (97 cubic in) 3.07 0.29 inches 941m 116 @ 6500 rpm 100 @ 5500 multi-port electronic fuel 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata Trims and Specs. Regular oil changes are one of the easiest DIY maintenance procedures to prolong engine life. Detailed specs and features for the Used 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata including dimensions, horsepower, engine, capacity, fuel economy, transmission, engine type, cylinders, drivetrain and more. . DO NOT use excessive force when disconnecting connectors, as damage to connector may occur.

Refined driveability and a factory appearance make this kit the

skirodeo7. * The Miata comes backed with our 36-month/ 50,000-mile, The starter bolts are torqued to 51-59ft.lbs. MIATA SPECS: Current specification. import from Japan. Brand: Exedy. Mazda Miata Standard Transmission 1991, FX300 Clutch Kit by Clutch Masters. Crank pulley bolt (late 1991 - present) 116-122/157-165(plus Loctite 242-blue) Cam cover bolts (must be done in correct order) May 30, 2010 1991 Mazda 323. Base engine size 1.60 L. Engine type Gas. .

Bearings, gaskets, seals, impeller, hub and . With Mazda American Credit, financing your new Miata is easy. 1991 dashboard Weight. Le couple est la force de torsion produite par le moteur. MIATA SPECS: Current specification. Air bag system voltage is maintained for about 10 minutes after system is . Section MT-7. 44-78 in-lbs. The 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata Base accelerates from zero to 60 mph in 8.5 seconds and hits quarter mile at 16.4 seconds. Set your torque wrench to 105 Nm or 80 lbs-ft. M8 8.8bolts (they are thinner) - set them to 20 lbs.

. 2011 race specification. General. Mazda Miata 1991. Please consider creating a new thread. The 1991 Mazda MX 5 Miata (NA) 1.6i has 115 PS / 113 bhp / 85 kW. Turbo Kits & Parts for 1991 Mazda Miata MX5. I am looking for the torque specs for a 2000 mazda miata. Specs. Includes studs, nuts, washers and assembly lubricant. Contact: Push Type Clutch. Torque Solution Turbo Blanket Starting @ $78.95. You tighten to manufacturer's specifications and replace the bolts. Banjo Bolt Torque Specifications. Recent work by frequent posters on miata.net have a number of only successful installations with torques as high as 115 ft-lbs. Make: Mazda . But we didn't stop there. We worked with ARP to come up with a head stud that really fits a Miata. Manufacturers; Concepts; Supercars; News; Price Guide; Vehicle Valuation . Mazda Miata 1990: Mazda Miata 2001: Mazda Miata 1991: Mazda Miata 2002: Mazda Miata 1992: Mazda Miata 2003: Mazda Miata 1993: Mazda Miata 2004: Mazda Miata 1994: Mazda Miata 2005: Mazda Miata 1995: Mazda Miata/MX-5 2006: Mazda Miata 1996: Mazda Miata/MX-5 2007: Does not Include: Flywheel. Mazda manual recommends tightening the bolts in the following pattern (recommend lightly tightening each bolt in 3 cycles):Center bolt between 2nd and 3rd spark plug.Center bolt in . Now, a couple IMPORTANT notes on torque specs provided by Rob Bentley: Flywheel bolts, use the Newton Meter setting, not the lbs-ft setting. B2200 Engine Torque Specs. For regular maintenance, use genuine Mazda components and Castrol (the U.S.A. only). Main . CO2, emissions,. 2011 race specification. Torque Specs Database Type: Dim: Length: Head . General Suspension Brakes Engine & Cooling Intake / Exhaust Clutch Back to the Garage 28 March, 2020 - posted in Spec Miata Garage: Ok guys I must have the most generic shop manual ever I cannot find the engine torque specs in this thing. . . Always lubricate the fasteners prior to applying torque to ensure accurate readings. 1 - 7 of 7 Posts. Torque (SAE net) 210 lbs.-ft. (29.0 kg-m) @5300 RPM 5-speed and Automatic: Redline: 8000 RPM - 5-speed 7500 RPM - Automatic: Fuel . Order online and have it delivered, or pick up at your local store. . despite having more displacement, the final gear ratio in the 1.8 NA Miatas is longer, so the higher torque might not be as pronounced as you might imagine. 1991 Reliant Scimitar SST 1800 Ti catalyst Europe 1.8-litre / 110 cui 90 kW / 122 PS / 121 hp (DIN) 1991 Morgan 4/4 1600 PI Two Seater Europe 1.6-litre / 97 cui 81 kW / 110 PS / 109 hp (DIN) 1991 Alfa Romeo Spider North America U.S. 2-litre / 120 cui 88 kW / 120 PS / 118 hp (DIN) 1991 Alfa Romeo Spider Veloce North America U.S. 2-litre / 120 cui According to RepairPal, the Miata MX-5 has above-average reliability with a 4.0 out of 5 ratings, ranking 8th out of 21 subcompact vehicles. Mazda MX-5 Miata 1992 - Find out the correct alloy wheel fitment, PCD, offset and such specs as bolt pattern, thread size(THD), center bore(CB) for Mazda MX-5 Miata 1992 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS table. As a bonus, they're less expensive than buying new factory bolts and much stronger. Most of the Mazda Miata manuals, repairloader.com offers, also include a parts list or parts catalog. There were also some naturally aspirated RX-7's from around 1989-1991 that were fitted with a Viscous LSD and while they will fit the 1.8 MX-5 Miata diff . The San Diego Miata Club does not accept any liability for damage or injury as a result of utilizing these tips and pointers. Car: 2007 Nissan Frontier, 1991 Nissan 240sx. Always just torqued it to spec.

Notes: Hyper Clutch/Flywheel Accessory Kit -- Incl. Modelyears: 1990-1991. torque specifications. Choose Your Year. ITEM TORQUE SPECIFICATION (Foot-pounds / Newton-meters) Crank pulley main bolt (1990 - early 1991) 80-87/108-118 (plus Loctite 242-blue) Crank pulley main bolt (late 1991 - present) . Always use ARP Ultra-Torque and follow the instructions below to . ARP Head Stud Bolt Torque Sequence Cambox Cover Bolt Tightening Sequence - Eleven 10mm bolts torqued to 7Nm/70kgf cm/55 INCH LBS Tags: 5) in 1991, the model with 2-door roadster body and Line-4 1598 cm3 / 97.4 cui, 86.5 kW / 118 PS / 116 hp (SAE net) engine for North America . Find Us. Details.

Your vehicle requires genuine Mazda 0W-20 Oil to maximize fuel efficiency. B2200 Oil Pump. # 631975818. Tighten in a diagonal pattern, one or two times at a time until seated then apply the final torque. This is an older thread, you may not receive a response, and could be reviving an old thread. WARNING: Wait about 10 minutes after disabling air bag system before servicing. Cette notation se rapporte directement la puissance lancement du vhicule partir d'un arrt complet. 1991 Mazda Miata Specs. but one that offers lots of suspension travel and a wide spread of torque. Mazda MX-5 Miata 1991 - Find out the correct alloy wheel fitment, PCD, offset and such specs as bolt pattern, thread size(THD), center bore(CB) for Mazda MX-5 Miata 1991 All 2016-17 80-108 ft-lbs 626 2001-02 65-87 ft-lbs . How much does a 1991 Mazda MX 5 Miata (NA) 1.6i weighs? Or if you prefer, you can lease. This is the specifications sheet used to help . Flyin' Miata is the primary sponsor of the effort. Approximately 2400 lbs wet. Vehicle Identification; Vin Plate: Left dash, seen through windshield : . Find your perfect 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata as low as $6,800 on Carsforsale.com. These changes were done for the automatic version to gain torque at a lower rpm and minimize detonation from the torque eating trans. (1991 - present) 116-122 / 157-165 (plus Loctite 242-blue) Cam cover bolts: .

This premium water pump uses new high-quality components and is designed to meet or exceed OE specifications. Overview User reviews Trims and Specs Pictures 306 Expand All Collapse All. The 1991 Mazda MX 5 Miata (NA) 1.6i has a Inline 4, Petrol engine with 1598 cm3 / 97.5 cu-in capacity. Condition: New. Mazda Miata 1991, Conti-V Multirib Serpentine Belt by Continental ContiTech.

1991 Mazda Miata Base 2D Convertible Do you own this car? With only $429 annual repair costs, the Miata is an inexpensive car to own compared to the $456 average for subcompact cars and $652 for all vehicles. In 1991, Mazda had been busy producing and marketing additional options with the Miata.

. Mazda has unleashed specifications for the 2014 re-do of the MX-5 Miata roadster. Wipe off the area around the drain plug one more time with a rag or . Originally compiled by the San Diego Miata Club - 12 February, 2002. See TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS TABLE at end of article. Moss Miata > Car Specifications - Mazda Miata 1991; CAR SPECIFICATIONS - MAZDA MIATA 1991. I think torque specs are different because of the materials used . Swapped and Boosted 1991-1994 Mazda Miata 1.6 L Turbo System - The 1991-94 Mazda Miata 1.6 Liter (please specify when ordering) series engines combined with Swapped and Boosted Inc. complete turbo system delivers serious horsepower and torque, that easily more than doubles your car's output from day one. How many horsepower (hp) does a 1991 Mazda MX 5 Miata (NA) 1.6i have?

. Shop millions of cars from over 22,500 respected auto dealers and find the perfect vehicle! Fuel consumption is 10.2 L/100km in the city and 7.8 L/100km in the highway. See TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS TABLE at end of article. 3 items to Replace, 1 item to Change fluid, 2 items to Torque, 1 item to Drain, . If using a torque wrench to tighten the drain plug, set the torque to : 29-41 N-m; 22-30 ft-lbs. Disc Center Style: Sprung.

1990 Mazda Miata technical specifications and data. Your Mazda vehicle runs on pure oil from Mazda. You happen to know if there's a forum or something . Mazda (North America) catalogue 1991 Mazda Miata. Mazda lug nut torque specs Mazda lug nut torque specs Here are Mazda lug nut torque specs. And replace the torque and intake bolts to manufacturers specifications for 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata. Detailed specs and features for the Used 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata Convertible including dimensions, horsepower, engine, capacity, fuel economy, transmission, engine type, cylinders, drivetrain and. . PRELOAD (TORQUE) RECOMMENDATIONS Following the manufacturer's recommended torque sequence, tighten the nuts in three equal steps to 65 ft-lbs with ARP ULTRA-TORQUE FASTENER ASSEMBLY LUBRICANT.

Specifications contained on this website are based on manufacturers' information and were believed accurate at the time of publication. Commercial Links. Horsepower and Torque curve for 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata automatic (aut. 1597cc Stock horsepower: 116 bhp @ 6500 rpm Torque: 100 lb.-ft @ 5500 rpm Miata Torque Specifications (Originally compiled by the San Diego Miata Club) Except where noted, all torque specifications listed are in Foot-pounds / Newton-meters. Engine and Drivetrain. 0. 5) engine Horsepower / Torque Curve Engine horsepower and torque curve for Mazda MX-5 Miata (man. 1994 - 1995: 75 ft-lbs: 4C: BASE / COUPE: 2015 - 2015: Refer to owner's manual ft-lbs Torque . miles backed up ny the CarFax.The 1.6-liter DOHC 16V inline-four was factory rated at 116 horsepower and 100 lb-ft of torque. Be careful to tighten to the manufacturer's specifications.

The Newton meter setting translation is off by 3 lbs. conceptcarz.com. 176 Answers. M2cupcar's FE-DOHC (FE3) Turbo Miata. For BRASS Fittings and Adapters Use 65% of the Torque Values.

1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata The highest-mileage Miata on staff (by a hair) was bought with 173,000 on the odometer and some upgrades that put it into STS class in autocross. Tighten steering gear-to-mounting bracket bolts (4) in the following order: left front, right front, left rear, right rear. Shipping Options: Ground. Part Number: 8533-05622025. thing possible to make the Miata a vehicle you'll want to take home. This 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata is one of approximately 4000 Special Edition examples built for the model year.

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named Miata as one ofthe "Ten Best Cars" for 1991. Detailed engine characteristics. . but one that offers lots of suspension travel and a wide spread of torque.

1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata Base - Convertible 1.6L Manual | Car specifications and features. Mazda Transmission Info. Engine and Drivetrain.

Approximately 2400 lbs wet. To Learn the Tightening Torque of Your Banjo Bolt Fittings in Either Newton - Metre or Pounds Force - Feet From the Torque Spec Chart Below, Determine the Banjo Bolt Size. Miata's are a car that have a very strong following among original seeking enthusiasts as well as track-car drivers to modify . I even stopped at the local Mazda dealership and they did not even have a manual for this thing go figure. 1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata AIR BAG RESTRAINT SYSTEM MAZDA 1990-91 AIR BAGS Microsoft We've also done everything possible to help you take it home. Transmission Clutch Masters FX300 Clutch Kit.

In 1991 a running change was made to the crank design .

Miata 2001-15 65-87 ft-lbs Millenia 2001 65-94 ft-lbs 2002 65-87 ft-lbs MPV 2001-06 80-108 ft-lbs Protege/Protege5 2001-03 66-88 ft-lbs RX-8 2004-11 65-87 ft-lbs Just ask your Mazda Dealer. 1,8 litres de la Miata produit . Torque: Oil Drain Plug.22-30 ft/lbs : Signature Series 10W-30 Synthetic Motor Oil.

I've never used loc-tite on that bolt on my long-nose 1992. 1991 Mazda Miata Spcifications La Mazda Miata, aussi connu comme la MX-5, a t introduit en 1989 comme un modle prcoce 1990. . Engineered to enhance your vehicle's performance Made to stringent quality standards.

99 engine torque specs ?

1991 Mazda MX-5 Miata STEERING COLUMN 1991 STEERING Mazda - Steering Columns Microsoft Sunday, July 05, 2009 2:10:42 PMSunday, July 05 . 1989 Mazda Miata. This pump is 100% tested to ensure quality. Part: Torque Spec. Talk about a low bar . See TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS table. 1991 Mazda Miata service repair manual has easy to read text sections with top quality diagrams and instructions, will guide you through fundamentals of maintaining and repairing, step-by-step, to teach you what the factory trained technicians already know by heart. If you are looking for turbo related parts for Mazda Miata MX5, you have come to the right place.

2.0L Mazda MX-5 Miata takes 4.5 quarts of 0W-20 oil with a filter. Recommended torque is equal 75% of the fastener's yield strength. The increase in power provided by Jackson Racing Supercharger for Miata tuning also helps to ensure stability with the handling of the vehicle. Flyin' Miata is the primary sponsor of the effort. Details: 396,000 Miles: 3 items to . After a couple years of long-haul commuting, it had an engine rebuild at 250,000 miles and has slowly seen some much-needed repairs and upgrades as well. Base. So can anybody give me the torque specs of these three items Main . Please Note: All Torque Values are Intended for STEEL Fittings. . Data for the car edition of the year 1991 for North America . Horsepower: 270 hp @7100 RPM - 5-speed 252 hp @6600 RPM - Automatic. car specs.us. The car price starts at $ 19,270 Share Your Comments 0 . You need to lock the camshafts with two crescent wrenches and a vice grip so the engine doesn't spin.

. Displacement Bore and stroke Compression ratio Horsepower, SAEnet Torque, SAE net lb.-ft. Fuel system Ignition system ThANSMISSION SPECIFICATIONS AND FEATURES Manual transmission Inline 4-cylinder DOHC 16-valve 1597cc (97 . Designed to transmit torque and drive engine accessories, this serpentine belt provides quieter and cooler performance, greater durability, and maximum. Like any retro design, the Miata's has proved somewhat challenging to update. Torque Specs. After hand-installing your lug nuts, tighten them to your vehicle's torque specs using a torque wrench, a tool designed to measure rotational force. Simply read down to the correct fastener size, then across to find the torque value for your application. Power is sent to the rear wheels through a five-speed manual transmission and a limited-slip differential .

4) (78.5 kW / 107 PS / 105 hp). Engine, horsepower, torque, dimensions and mechanical details for the 1990 Mazda Miata. High Power Improvement (HPI) Top Mount Engine Torque Damper Mazda Comp Motor Mounts Suzuki Cappuccino Windshield Washer Bottle Relocated to Cowl 1. Body type: Convertible Country of origin: Japan Purchase price: $1200 0-60 time: 9.1 seconds . Jackson Racing Supercharger is connected to the crankshaft of the Mazda Miata engine. Ah okay sounds good. Recommended torque is equal to 75% of the fastener's yield strength. . Advanced timing gives better torque to mid and lower revs. 6.Shut the engine down and remove valve covers. The new one is sharper, tauter, and a bit more . The 1986 to 1991 naturally aspirated RX-7's use an aluminium housing that is directly swappable with the MX-5 Miata provided the large 'donut' differential bushings of the MX-5 Miata are used. 1991 Acura NSX Specifications Release; June 3, 1990 Torrance, Calif. Engine and Electrical: Engine Type : 3.0 liter, DOHC, 24-valve, V6 . Car Specifications. This content . Listed here are the general torque recommendations for most ARP fasteners. . nuts to specification. . Fits all NA and NB Miata engines. Reactivate air bag system. It is hard to find documented data about the effect of cam timing in B6ZE. Spark plugs: 11-17 (132-204 in-lbs) Engine oil drain plug (19mm) . The 'short nose crank bolt' torque of 80-87 ft-lbs was updated in a Mazda paper as early as 1991, to 97-104 ft-lbs. B2200, B2600i, Miata, MPV, MX-6, Navajo, Protege, RX7, 323, 626, 929 INTRODUCTION Removal, overhaul and installation procedures are covered in this article. All torque values referenced from the 1991 Mazda Factory Manual unless otherwise stated. Pricing & Features; Vehicle Overview; Car Prices and Values; Technical Specs; Warranty; Maintenance & Repairs; Diagnose Your Problem; Repair Cost Calculator; . It gives me a couple basic ones but not the ones I need. Country of origin: J Japan. Cruising side-by-side, the old and new Miata look like father and son. The 116 HP Miata 1.6 DOHC motor from 1990-1993 is a normally aspirated version of that 323 turbo engine. Summary. Torque RPM 5,500 . Reviews (24) Pictures (161) Original . . Change the oil in your first generation NA MX-5 Miata to keep it running strong.

Trestle Systems 2470 Island Dr, Suite 308 Spring Park, MN 55384 There are some general rules, though. The tradeoff is a less peak HP rating of 100. Features Performance Power Transmission: 5 Manual , 4 Automatic Handling Recall Information provided by NHTSA Data updated February 2022 1991 Averages Vehicles with Similar Dimensions If component removal and installation is primarily an unbolt and bolt-on procedure, only a torque specification may be furnished. Production/sales period of cars with this particular specs: early-year 1990 - mid-year 1991. So that's how the car is set up. Simply read down to the correct fastener size, then across to find the torque value for your application. Our . I have attached an image for reference. Joined: Mon Jun 11, 2007 1:25 pm. Torque: 100 lb-ft @ 5,500 RPM: Dimensions. Vehicles with Similar 18.10 HP/Weight Ratio. Torque 100 ft-lbs. Reply. 1991 Mazda Miata Mariner Blue ex-spec blue 2000 GT-S Mazda Rev-it-Up 2003: 10th Overall. The tiny little sporter will see some weight loss, styling improvements, and a better engine; all . 1991 Mazda Miata We bought the World's Grossest Miata for all of $1200. This engine produces a maximum power of 152 PS (150 bhp - 112 kW) at 6500 rpm and a maximum torque of 209.0 Nm (154 lb.ft) at 5500 rpm. Eight seconds to sixty, plenty of torque steer and body roll, 28 miles to the gallon, and an optional hardtop that would satisfy all crash regulations in 1991.

In terms of performance, the car has 126 N.m of torque and a top speed of 179 km/h. AMSOIL 1991 Mazda MIATA (1.6L 4 -cyl Engine Code 1597cc 3) Motor Oil, Filters and Lubricants - AMSOIL . Exhaust Manifold bolt torque = 29 - 33 ft lbs Lug nut torque = 65 - 87 ft lbs Main Bearing torque = 40 - 43 ft lbs Solo Miata's Randy Stocker has written in his site that 1.6 liter Miata engine with stock cams benefits from 6-8 deg retardation, if you are looking for max power.