Methods: This review is an update for the clinicians to understand the pharmacology, clinical features, laboratory evaluation, and treatment for naphthalene toxicity. choking from inhalation of vomit after inhalant use; or; Perhaps the most significant toxic effect of chronic exposure to inhalants is widespread and long-lasting damage to the brain and other parts of the nervous system. 2-methoxy-5-nitroanaline inhalation cancer removed.

Terminal Body Weights in Controls and in Fischer 344 Rats Exposed to Naphthalene by Gavage for 13 Weeks.. 7-8 Table 7-2. If you or someone you know has been regularly inhaling moth balls or their fumes, take them to the doctor immediately.

Naphthalene may also damage the liver, kidneys and the eyes. Naphthalene is also a possible carcinogen. Hazards of Crude Oil Components All of these components are inhalation hazards Some also pose a dermal exposure hazard Exposures may result in either acute or chronic effects Remember the Routes of Entry Inhalation Absorption Ingestion Injection. In mice, the injury is dose-dependent and Clara cell-specific. As little as 250500 mg may produce hemolysis in a patient with G6PD deficiency. A reference concentration (RfC) for inhalation exposure to naphthalene has not been derived (U.S. EPA, 1991, 1992). Inhalation: On inhalation naphthalene cases headache, confusion, excitement, nausea, vomiting and sweating. NTP: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of naphthalene in B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies).

DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. Nearly all materials that are airborne can be inhaled. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. Acute hemolysis may occur, especially in patients with G6PD deficiency. OTHER ROUTES OF EXPOSURE 3.3.1.

Though it is freely available around this country, poisoning has never been reported in the literature. Inhalation. Occupational exposure as a painter was considered by previous Working Groups in 1988 and 2007 (IARC, 1989, 2010a). Systemic poisoning is the result of inhalation of fumes from molten sub-stances containing chlorinated naph-thalenes rather than from contact with cold solids. If remediation is not complete, then go to Step 4.B. Acute exposure of humans to naphthalene by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact is associated with haemolytic anaemia, liver damage, neurological damage in infants, and death. No exposure-related gross pathologic lesions were observed at necropsy. External gaseous exchange then takes place, using the principle of diffusion: NIH Publication No. Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure to naphthalene-containing compounds such as mothballs.

Be aware that you can also breathe in naphthalene vapours from clothes that have been stored in moth balls. Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal Introduction. Physical Properties Physical description A white crystalline volatile solid with A white crystalline volatile solid with A white crystalline volatile solid with Boiling point 424F Molecular weight 128.2 Freezing point/melting point 176F Vapor pressure 0.08 mmHg Flash point 174F Vapor density 4.42 Specific gravity 1.15 Ionization potential 8.12 eV 6 more rows Sources and route of human exposure Naphthalene toxicity may occur by all routes of exposure, whether by inhalation of vapours, ingestion and by dermal or ocular contact [1-3]. A 19-year-old woman ingested 12 mothballs, and presented two days later with haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia. GSH levels and histopathology were monitored during the first 24 h after exposure. Those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are especially susceptible. Serious poisoning in animals is reported to cause tremors and hepatic necrosis. See annual publication for most recent information. The LD 50 is 1.8 g/kg in adult rats. It can also cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, seizures and coma. The most likely source of exposure to significant amounts of naphthalene is occupational inhalation of the vapour, since its principal use is in industry [1]. Exposure to naphthalene can cause haemolytic anaemia, which doesn't prevent it being an ingredient in lavatory-bowl deodorant blocks. Industrial naphthalene-fume poisoning, chiefly with skin manifestations (Touraine and Menetrel 1934, Fanburg 1940) and especially naphthalene cataract (Bouchard and Charrin 1886, Michail and Vancea 1927) have also been often reported and investigated. This can happen if you get some on your hands and don't wash them before eating or smoking. During inhalation, each alveoli receives air that contains various gases: nitrogen (almost 80%), oxygen (almost 20%) and other gases including 0.04% carbon dioxide. Symptoms of severe poisoning are vomiting, then coma, and hematuria (Ref. Chronic (long-term) exposure of workers and rodents to naphthalene has been reported to cause cataracts and damage to the retina. The substance with the formula C 20 H 12 is one of the benzopyrenes, formed by a benzene ring of the substance in question and quantitative estimates of risk from oral exposure and inhalation exposure. This can cause organ damage. Exposed to Naphthalene by Inhalation for Their Lifetime .. 7-15 Table 7-4. As discussed in Chapter 2 and Appendix A, several MRLs for naphthalene (chronic-duration inhalation, acute-duration oral, and intermediate-duration oral) and chronic-duration oral MRLs for 1-methylnaph-thalene and 2-methylnaphthalene have been derived. Naphthalene Trace 91-20-3 Sulphur Trace 7704-34-9 2. Naphthalene Methemoglobinemia Hemolytic anemia Metabolic acidosis Seizures 1. It also includes news and meeting information, an A-Z index, and more. Mothballs are either p-dichlorobenzene or naphthalene. Noun: 1. naphthalene poisoning - toxic condition resulting from inhaling or ingesting naphthalene Rarely optic neuritis is encountered. This can cause organ damage. Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure to naphthalene-containing compounds such as mothballs. concentration exceeds the inhalation exposure pathway residential direct contact criterion of 6 mg/kg. Ingestion or inhalation can cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, depression, and stomach pain. Naphthalene Methemoglobinemia Hemolytic anemia Metabolic acidosis Seizures 1. Aims: To estimate exposures to benzene and naphthalene among military personnel working with jet fuel (JP-8) and to determine whether naphthalene might serve as a surrogate for JP-8 in studies of health effects.

Naphthalene is a white solid substance with a strong smell. Naphthalene poisoning. Symptoms include weakness, dizziness, fatigue and fainting. Exposure to Naphthalene in Media Other than Water .. 5-8 Table 7-1. from incomplete combustion) and/or indoor air (i.e. f Inhaling Naphthalene can irritate the nose and throat. f High exposure to Naphthalene can cause headache, fatigue, confusion, tremor, nausea and vomiting. f Exposure to Naphthalene may cause a skin allergy. fNaphthalene may damage the liver and kidneys. fRepeated high exposure may cause anemia (low blood count). fNaphthalene is a COMBUSTIBLE SOLID. It may also be This contrasts with the structure of benzene, in which all the CC bonds have a common length, 1.39 . Naphthalene is more reactive than benzene, both in substitution and addition reactions, and these reactions tend to proceed in a manner that maintains one intact benzene ring. CAREX defines exposure to naphthalene as inhalation exposure at work at levels exceeding those encountered in non-occupational settings, such as exposure due to inhaling urban air (i.e. Its non-commercial name is naphthalene, and it comes in pellets, liquid, or flakes. Naphthalene is a primary irritant upon direct skin contact and may be acutely irritating to the eyes. guidance. Naphthalene (mothball) is a commonly used deodorizer in the Indian subcontinent, including Sri Lanka. The skin is the largest organ of your body and a common exposure site for liquid and airborne chemicals.

Effects of Exposure Symptoms : Excessive inhalation vapors cause rapid breathing, excitability, staggering ,headache, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, Poisoning from naphthalene destroys or changes red blood cells so they cannot carry oxygen. Naphthalene inhalation and ingestion can cause headaches, nausea, extensive sweating, and confusion. Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed. Mortality resulting from exposure to chlorinated naphthalene fumes has been reported.3 4 The most the dosage, formulation, labelling, packaging and presentation of a substance: This can cause organ damage. Majority of the cases have been reported in young children with accidental exposure to naphthalene balls . Over time, long-term exposure to naphthalene can lead to an anemia. Acute (short- term) exposure of humans to naphthalene by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact is associated with hemolytic anemia, damage to the liver, and neurological damage. These experts collectively have knowledge of naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, and 2-methyl naphthalene's physical and chemical properties, toxicokinetics, key health end points, mechanisms of action, human and animal exposure, and quantification of This is considered the worst case scenario for the aggregate risk assessment. fNaphthalene may damage the liver and kidneys. Exposure to naphthalene can cause more serious effects, including hemolytic anemia. Chronic inhalation exposure resulted in increased incidences of nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the nose of rats (Abdo et al. Acute (short- term) exposure of humans to naphthalene by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact is associated with hemolytic anemia, damage to the liver, and neurological damage. As little as one mothball can result in toxicity in children. This article is for information only. landuse scenario: body surface area, ingestion rates, body weight and soil adherence factors.

Human exposure to naphthalene is primarily through inhalation, although it can be ingested and absorbed through the skin. 410. Ammonia Naphthalene is a white solid substance with a strong smell. It rarely occurs in suicidal attempts in adults and in accidental ingestion by children. Incidence and Severity of Nonneoplastic Lesions in the Noses of Rats in a Exposure to large amounts of naphthalene may cause confusion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, blood in the urine, and jaundice (yellow coloration of the skin due to dysfunction of the liver). This article is for information only. Introduction Naphthalene is commonly found in moth repellent products such as mothballs in developing countries. Can you sleep in a room with naphthalene balls/mothballs? This article is for information only. Definition: Naphthalene is a white solid substance with a strong smell. Although it is one of the most widely used pesticides, prolonged exposure to this substance should be avoided, as its inhalation, ingestion or contact can cause severe damage that must be treated immediately by a specialist. Breathing in the fumes over a period of time can cause poisoning, too. Synonym (s): naphthalin, tar camphor. Ingestion: After ingestion naphthalene causes abdominal cramps with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.

Ingestional naphthalene mothball poisoning leading to prolonged haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia can present with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. For the highest residential exposure scenario to naphthalene acetates, estimated dermal and inhalation exposure are low and do not pose risks of concern. People can experience anemia after several years of exposure to naphthalene. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. There may be dysuria, haematuria and an acute haemolytic reaction. Gene expression data in naive mice were consistent with the concept that female juvenile mice are more predisposed to DNA damage and lung tumors than the other groups. This article is for information only. Naphthalene, NTP TR 410 Nonneoplastic lesions attributed to naphthalene exposure were observed in the nose and lungs of mice of both sexes. Anemia can result when high levels of naphthalene are breathed, absorbed through the skin or eaten. The US EPA has classified naphthalene as a Group C, possible human carcinogen. Accidental or intentional poisoning by naphthalene has been reported by swallowing, skin contact, and inhalation. Motor Oil. Based on these air monitoring data, the level of naphthalene detected (0.0002 ppm) was below its odor threshold. Human exposure to naphthalene (NA), an acute lung toxicant and possible human carcinogen, is primarily through inhalation. ( naf'th-ln ), A carcinogenic and toxic hydrocarbon obtained from coal tar; used for many syntheses in industry and in some moth repellents; naphthalene can cause an attack of hemolytic anemia in people with a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Be sure to alert your physician of any symptoms of anemia. These odor thresholds for naphthalene are below the regulated level of 10 ppm for occupational exposure, so people can smell this chemical before conditions are hazardous. Petrochemicals feedstock like ethylene and propylene can also be produced directly by cracking crude oil Naphthalene consists of two benzene rings that are fused together; the resulting molecule is still aromatic, and undergoes the reactions that are typical of benzene Extended exposure to the vapors may result in cataract formation and liver damage. Inhalation REL (ug/m 3) Oral REL (ug/kg BW-day) Hazard Index Target Organs . It is well absorbed following oral, dermal and inhalation exposure. But it has rarely Case Report. 2001; Long et al. Extended exposure to mothballs can also cause liver and kidney damage. The presence of respiratory tract tumors in animals following naphthalene exposure by inhalation is sufficient to demonstrate carcinogenicity in these model systems, but the quantification of human cancer risk at low exposure levels based on these studies is a point of considerable debate. However, the general public may be exposed to naphthalene through inhalation of smoke from burning fossil fuels or wood, or from inhaling vehicle exhaust fumes. through the skin is another route of entry. Naphthalene Poisoning. The results of this study indicate that the LC 50 for naphthalene vapour in Wistar albino rats is greater than 77.7 ppm, (0.4 mg/L) naphthalene. For certain uses, consider hydrogen peroxide. Definition: Naphthalene is a white solid substance with a strong smell. Diesel exhaust is classified as carcinogenic and the particulate fraction has in itself been Clinically, patients present with acute onset of dark brown urine, watery diarrhea, and non-bloody bilious vomiting 48-96 hours after exposure. repeated exposure can cause clouding of the eye lens (cataract), which may damage vision. In 1989 there were 2,300 reported ingestion of naphthalene ball by children under the age of 6 in United States alone . B. Naphthalene causes lung toxicity in mice, but not rats, following either intraperitoneal injection or inhalation exposure. Poisoning from naphthalene destroys or changes red blood cells so they cannot carry oxygen. lene. The amount necessary to produce lethargy or seizures is not known but may be as little as 12 g. Several infants developed serious poisoning from clothes and bedding that had been stored in naphthalene mothballs. Answer (1 of 2): Termites use naphthalene to protect their nests. In the nose, naphthalene exposure was with associated an increage the in incidence and severity of chronic inflammation, metaplasia of the olfactory epithelium, and hyper- plasia of Vital sign abnormalities include fever, tachycardia, Go to Step 7. If swallowed, naphthalene can damage red blood cells, causing kidney damage and many other problems. An MRL of 0.0007 ppm (3x10-3 mg/m3) for chronic inhalation exposure to naphthalene is based on a Introduction Naphthalene is commonly found in moth repellent products such as mothballs in developing countries.

Half of the mice were given the GSH depletor diethylmaleate (DEM) 1 hour before naphthalene exposure. Inhalation of naphthalene may cause skin and eye irritation; gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea; neurologic symptoms, such as confusion, excitement, and convulsions; renal problems, such as acute renal shutdown; and hematologic features, such as icterus and severe anemia. f Exposure to Naphthalene may cause a skin allergy. Ingestion, either accidental or by deliberate self-harm, can occur due to its abundance as well as its candy-resembling appearance.